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12月
6 2009
 

Chapter 4


   作者:张丽敏 发表时间-19 :6:28  阅读( 513 )| 评论( 0 )

一、词组(短语):


1. in ancient times        在古代             


2.on the abacus   在算盘上


3. in many different ways  以(用)许多不同方式 


4.from …to…     从


5. consist of =be made up of   组成           


6.stand for=represent    代表、象征


7.The system of numbers       数字系统           


8.at least 至少 


9.at most  最多


10.help sb to do sth     帮助某人做某事    


11.help sb with sb ...方面帮助某人


12.start/begin with        ……开始        


13.write...down    写下记下


14 in  figures    用数字            


15.in words        用字


16 square root             平方根             


17.multiply…by    ……


18 in a flash              一瞬间;迅速      


19.work out      算出制定出


20.Have a seat = sit down  就坐;坐下        


21. make a mistake  犯错误


22. look out = Take care! = Be careful!       小心;注意


23.be different from       与......不同


24. be the same as  与......一样


25.developing countries    发展中国家      


26. developed countries  发达国家


二;重要句型、结构:


1.    use sth. to do sth. = do sth. With sth.


   We use our eyes to see something.


= We see something with our eyes.


   The foreigners use forks to eat food.


 = The foreigners eat food with forks.


2.  It''s adj.(形容词) for sb. to do sth.  


   It''s very important for us to learn English well.


   It''s bad for your eyes to watch TV too much.


3. decide to do sth. = make a decision to do sth.


   We decide to visit the Great Wall next month.


   = We make a decision to visit the Great Wall next month.


4. tell sb. ( not )to do sth.  


5.  Parents tell us to listen to teachers carefully in class.           They told children not to swim in the sea.  


5.Sth. cost sb. sm.(钱) = sb. pay sm. for sth.


 = sb. spend sm.on sth.


   The bike cost Tom 300 yuan.


 = Tom paid 300 yuan for the bike.


   Tom spent 300 yuan on the bike.


三:同义句:


1、         Two plus three is five = Two and three equals five.


  = Two added to three makes five.


= If we add two to three,we get five.


= Add two to three, and we get five.


2、  Ten minus six is four. = Six subtracted from ten is four.


= Subtract 6 from 10,and we get four.


2、         Three times four is twelve.


 = Three multiplied by four is twelve.


= Multiply three by four,and we get twelve.
4、  Sixteen divided by four is four.


= Divide sixteen by four,and we get four.


四;.加减乘除表示法


(1).“加”用plus,and或added to表示;


“等于”用is,equals,makes等词表示。


2+3=?可表示为:How much is two plus three?


2+3=5 Two plus three is five
      = Two and three equals five.
      = Two added to three makes five.


 = If we add two to three,we get five.


 = Add two to three, and we get five.


(2).“减”用minus或 subtracted from表示。


10-6=?  How much is ten minus six?


10-6=4  Ten minus six is four.


 = Six subtracted from ten is four.


= Subtract 6 from 10,and we get four.


(3).“乘”可以用times或multiplied by表示。


3×4=? How much is three times four?


3×4=12 Three times four is twelve.


= Three multiplied by four is twelve.


= Multiply three by four,and we get twelve.
(4)“除”用divide的过去分词形式divided by表示。


16÷4=?How much is sixteen divided by four?


16÷4=4 Sixteen divided by four is four.


= Divide sixteen by four,and we get four.


四;语法


一、 祈使句 : 是表示请求、命令、建议等句子,通常称为“无主句”。说话的对象是第二人称you, you常被省略。谓语动词一律用动词原形。如
    Pick up the model plane. 


 Go and see, Jim.         


1)  祈使句的否定式是在谓语动词前加don''t。 如:
     Don''t go there.。    


  Don’t be late next time. 
     Don''t go into the pet shop.  
2)  祈使句的结构:


    肯定: 动词原形 + 其他成分。


   否定:  Don’t + 动词原形 + 其他成分。      


Go and wash your hands.       


Be quiet, please.( = Please be quiet.)


Look out!Dangerous!        


 Don''t let the dog in.   


 Don''t be late. 


 


数字分为基数词和序数词。表示人或事物数量多少的数词叫基数词,如:one, two, three, nine, ten;表示人或事物的顺序的数词叫序数词,如:first, second, third, ninth. 常用基数词和序数词对照表如下所示:































































































































基数词


序数词




基数词


序数词




基数词


序数词


1


one


first


11


eleven


eleventh


 


 


 


2


two


second


12


twelve


twelfth


20


twenty


twentieth


3


three


third


13


thirteen


thirteenth


30


thirty


thirtieth


4


four


fourth


14


fourteen


fourteenth


40


forty


fortieth


5


five


fifth


15


fifteen


fifteenth


50


fifty


fiftieth


6


six


sixth


16


sixteen


sixteenth


60


sixty


sixtieth


7


seven


seventh


17


seventeen


seventeenth


70


seventy


seventieth


8


eight


eighth


18


eighteen


eighteenth


80


eighty


eightieth


9


nine


ninth


19


nineteen


nineteenth


90


ninety


ninetieth


10


ten


tenth


20


twenty


twentieth


100


hundred


hundredth



thousand


thousandth


百万


million


millionth


十亿


billion


billionth


1.   基数词


(1).表示几十几时,在十位数和个位数之间添加连字符“-”  45 forty-five  92 ninety-two


(2).表示几百时,在百位数与十位数或个位数间加上and.如:


320 three hundred and twenty     101 a hundred and one


(3).千位数以上的,从数字的有端向左段数起,每位数加一个逗号“,”。从右开始,第一个“,”前的数字后添加thousand,第二个“,”前面的数字后添加million,第三个“,”前的数字后添加billion.如: 2,648 two thousand six hundred and forty-eight


16,250,064 sixteen million two hundred and fifty thousand and sixty-four


(4).基数词在表示确切的数字时,不能使用百,千,百万,十亿的附属形式,如:two hundreds,eight thousands都是错误的:但是当基数词表示不明确数字,如成百,成千上万时,基数词则以复数形式出现。如:hundreds of,  thousands of,  millions of,  billions of.


There are hundreds of people in the hall.


There are about three thousand students in this school.


(5).表示人的不确切岁数或年代,用几十的复数形式表示。


He became a professor in his thirties.
   他三十多岁时成为了教授。


It was in the 1960s。那是在二十世纪六十年代。


She died of lung cancer in forties.  
   她四十来岁时死于肺癌。


2.   序数词从第一至第十九,其中,one—first,two—second,three—third,five—fifth,


 nine—ninth,twelve—twelfth为特殊形式,其他的序数词都是由其相对应的基数词后面添加“th”构成。
例如:six—sixth, nineteen—nineteenth


(2).从第二十几至第九十几时,整数第几十的基数词形式加上连字符“-”和个位序数词形式一起表示。例:31 Thirty-first 第三十一;  59 fifty-ninth 第五十九   43 forty-third 第四十三


(3)、第一百以上的多位序数词。只须把个位的基数词变为序数词。


121 One-hundred and twenty-first 第一百二十一


2,320 two thousand,three hundred and twentieth
      第二千三百二十


(4)、第三类( 整十 )


twentieth (20th) 第二十 thirtieth (30th) 第三十      fortieth (40th) 第四十 fiftieth (50th) 第五十       sixtieth (60th) 第六十          seventieth (70th) 第七十
eightieth (80th) 第八十         ninetieth (90th) 第九十
    这一类全是十位整数的序数词,共八个。它们的构成方法是:先将相应的十位整数的基数词词尾-ty中的y改成i,然后在加上后缀-eth。


注:three -- thirteen   thirty -- third   five-- fifteen  


 Fifty--  fifth       four—fourteen--- forty


(5)序数词的缩写形式first—1st     second—2nd    third—3rd    fourth—4th     sixth—6th twentieth—20th twenty-third—23rd


其中 1st,2nd 3rd为特殊形式,其他的都是阿拉伯数字后加上th.


注意:序数词在使用时,通常前面要加定冠词the;但是如果序数词前出现不定冠词a或an时,则表示“再……”,“又……”


We’ll go over it a second time.我们将再复习一遍。


另外,基数词也可以表示顺序。只需将基数词放在它所修饰的名词之后即可,不需要添加定冠词,但首字母要大写。如:the first lesson—Lesson One, the fifth page—Page Five


D.Use of numbers 数词的使用


 


 一、词组(短语):(1分)


          1. 在古代       2.在算盘上3.  以(用)许多不同方式         
4.从…到…     5. 由…组成  6.代表、象征


        7.数字系统    8. 至少  9. 最多 10.帮助某人做某事    
11.在...方面帮助某人    12.从……开始        


       13.记下            14. 用数字       15.  用字                         


      16. 平方根        17. 以……乘       18 一瞬间;迅速


     19. 算出;制定出    20.坐;坐下   21. 犯错误                     


     22. 小心;注意   23. 与......不同        24. 与......一样


     25.发展中国家26. 发达国家 27.一瞬间                        
     28. 以十计算      29.国际语言           30很久以前


二.解释句子(2 分)


1. We use our eyes to see something.


2.It''s very kind  for them to help me


3. We decide to visit the Great Wall next month.


4.The bike cost Tom 300 yuan.


5. Two and three equals five.


6.Ten minus six is four.


7.Three multiplied by four is twelve.


8. Sixteen divided by four is four.


9. The sign stands for  the peace and love.


10. The book consists of twenty stories.


11.He said nothing


12.I often help my mother do housework.


13.The film is very interesting.


14. May I have your name?


15.Wendy is a girl.She is 15 years old.


三:句型转换 (2分)


1.My phone number is  25865281(就划线部分提问)


2.Five plus one is six. (就划线部分提问)


3.Use your own computer.(变否定句)


4.Tom put his book here.(@齙??绻lang=EN-US>)


5.Peter does his homework in the evening.(变否定句)



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